Contents 1/2018; tome 72


  • 2 Internal and External Competitiveness of the Polish Food Industry – Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.1)
    • In the situation of economic globalization and regional integration, competing with other entities, aimed at achieving the benefits, coming from activities on the domestic and international market has become the inherent element of functioning of economic enterprises. This also applies to the entities of the Polish food industry, for which the recent decade was a period of intensive development. Despite some lower indicators in this sector as compared to the whole industrial processing (inter alias, work efficiency, technical equipment), the competitiveness of the food industry has been improved. The dynamic growth of exports, growing trade balance and improvement of other analyzed indicators of external competitiveness of the food industry points to strengthening of the position of domestic producers on the international market. This phenomenon has a positive effect on the economic condition of the sector and the further prospects of its development.
      KEY WORDS: food industry, competitiveness, domestic market, international market
  • 6 China – a Strategic Partner of Poland in Trade with the Non-EU Countries – Małgorzata Bułkowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.2)
    • China is one of the largest exporters and importers of agri-food products in the world. In 2016, China’s participation in Polish agri-food exports was only 0.4%, and 1.9% in import. In 2016, Polish exports of agri-food products to China amounted to USD 114 million. The commodity structure of Polish exports to China was dominated by dairy products as well as meat and offals. The value of Polish imports in 2016 was nearly three times higher than exports. Poland imported mainly frozen fish fillets from China, the value of which was almost 1/3 of imports. Negative trade balance amounted to USD 225 million. China is a promising market for Polish agri-food products, especially for sweets, milk and milk products and meat. The main barrier to the development of exports to China includes restrictive sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. They have a negative impact on the position of Polish meat exporters in this market.
      KEY WORDS: foreign trade, agri-food products, Poland, China
  • 11 Consumer Behavior of Women and Men – Paweł Jurowczyk (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.3)
    • Before 1989, shopping centers were not known in Poland. The first hypermarkets were established in the mid-90s. The expansion of large-scale retail has contributed to changes in consumer behavior, influenced their attitudes and changed their expectations. Nowadays, the consumers are more demanding and aware of sales activities. Therefore, it is necessary to study constantly the consumer behavior, to identify and understand their needs, motives and to adjust sales strategy in place of purchase to changing environment. Consumer behavior is conditioned by many factors, and one the most important determinants differentiating consumer behavior on the market is gender. Gender significantly differentiates consumer behavior in different categories in the store. It differentiates the profile of buyers in particular food categories, the way of the purchase, or purchases from additional exposures.
      KEY WORDS: consumer behavior, gender, food products


  • 14 Traditional Foods from Third Countries. Novel Food – New Regulations – Grażyna Osęka, Marta Zawadka
    • „Traditional food from a third country” is a category of so-called “novel food” introduced under the provisions of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015, which has applied as from 1 January 2018. It refers to food which was not present on a large scale on the EU food market before 1997, but has a history of safe use in at least one country outside the EU. New rules provide for a simplified procedure for this kind of foods. The article discusses the definition of the term “traditional food from a third country” and the procedure for authorizing the placing of such food on the market, based on the provisions of Regulation 2015/2283, implementing regulations and the respective EFSA guidance. It also raises doubts concerning interpretation of the new rules and practical aspects of their application. Finally, some examples of traditional products from the third countries are given, showing beneficial properties that can be used in the food industry.
      KEY WORDS: novel food, traditional foods from third countries, Regulation 2015/2283, EU law


  • 18 Functional Food and its Importance on the Modern Market – Halina Makała (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.4)
    • Incorrect nutrition and low physical activity are to a large extent the cause of diet-related diseases. Consumption of functional products can significantly reduce the occurrence of many diseases, hence the dynamic development of this food sector. The article characterizes functional food, its impact on the body and the improvement of the psychophysical comfort of consumers’ life. The division of this type of food is discussed due to its purpose and composition. The reasons for enriching food and trends in the production of functional foods, including the use of the latest techniques and technologies are presented. One of the possibilities of creating food tailored to specific consumer requirements is „Bio-inspired food processing” or printing functional food in 3D.
      KEY WORDS: functional foods, bioactive ingredients, innovative solutions
  • 23 Food Losses in Food Processing. Causes and Possibilities of their Limitation – Beata Bilska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.5)
    • The extensive food waste is one of the most serious problems of the modern civilization. Irrational use of food, apart from the quantitative losses, is connected with the financial losses, and it means a threat to our environment, the excessive consumption of natural resources and a failure to satisfy nutritional needs of the societies. Food waste is not only to generate financial losses, but also irreversible loss of energy. The ways should be therefore sought to limit food losses and to use food in accordance with its intended purpose. One of the ways to do it includes a transfer of food through social purpose organisations to reach those who are in need. To this purpose, the procedure „Food losses and waste reduction model for the benefit of the society” (MOST) based on mandatory HACCP system was proposed. The way of developing the procedure is compatible with existing documentation in the enterprise, which greatly facilitates and improves its implementation.
      KEY WORDS: food losses in processing, causes of food losses, limitation of food losses, MOST procedure
  • 26 Sustainable Technologies – Utilization of Plant By-Products – Hanna Kowalska, Agata Marzec, Jolanta Kowalska, Kinga Samborska, Alicja Stelmach, Andrzej Lenart (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.6)
    • At present, sustainable food processing technology should keep in mind the need to reduce by-products and use their potential effectively. The impact of these actions is important for the current food economy, as well as the future state of the environment. Due to the high content of bioactive components, by-products (peel, pulp, seeds) constitute a natural raw material for the recovery of valuable nutrients. The extracted substances may be used in the food production as functional ingredients and nutraceuticals or in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. It is possible to enrich food with health-promoting ingredients. Still, too few residues from the processing of fruit and vegetables are used appropriately in the food industry as new attractive with natural ingredients enriching food and in the pharmaceutical field, biofuel production and others.
      KEY WORDS: nutrients recovery; natural ingredients, food enrichment
  • 30 Food Contamination with Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons – Marzena Pawlicka, Andrzej Starski, Jacek Postupolski (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.7)
    • Mineral oils are almost universally present in our environment. Their constituents can penetrate into food of both plant and animal origin in many different ways. From the perspective of their chemical structure, the main compounds of interest are mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). Both types are easily absorbed by humans with food and can accumulate in both adipose tissue and certain organs such as the liver, spleen, or lymph nodes.
      KEY WORDS: mineral oil hydrocarbons, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), food, food contact materials


  • 34 Syrups and Molasses as Natural Sugar Substitutes – Katarzyna Świąder, Agnieszka Trybuła, Dominika Średnicka-Tober, Ewelina Hallmann
    • The characteristics of the most popular natural sugar substitutes such as carob molasses, molasses from sugar beet and sugar cane, a date syrup, agave syrup, maple syrup, coconut sugar and syrup have been described. Their properties have been described and compared. It has been shown that individual syrups and molasses are characterized by varying sweetness, caloric content, glycemic index and pro-health properties, and their knowledge can be helpful when used properly as table sugar alternatives, especially by diabetics. Due to their much lower glycemic index compared to sucrose the most recommended groups are carob molasses, maple syrup, agave syrup, coconut syrup and sugar.
      KEY WORDS: natural sugar substitutes, molasses, plant syrups
  • 38 Phytomelatonin in Food Products – Jacek Anioła, Aleksandra Malinowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.8)
    • Melatonin, the hormone responsible for sleep in mammals, also occurs in the vegetable world. Due to its healthy properties, some research into the possibility of using its rich natural plant sources is continuing. Relatively high levels of phytomelatonin, i.e. more than 10 ng/g, were found in peppers, tomatoes, strawberries and cherries, but highest in some herbs, e.g. white mulberry leaves, were about 1500 ng/g and St John’s wort 4400 ng/g. The content of this compound in plants is, however, very variable and depends on the variety, the anatomical part of the plant, the degree of maturity, the environmental conditions, especially the abiotic stressors such as strong light, cold, salinity and drought, soil, and even storage and processing conditions. That practically limits the use of natural plant sources of this hormone for therapeutic purposes.
      KEY WORDS: melatonin, phytomelatonin content, factors, plant foods
  • 41 Millet Groat – its Nutritive Value and Health-Promoting Properties – Lidia Stasiak-Różańska, Karolina Kraśniewska (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.9)
    • Millet groat is characterized by its rich nutritional composition and high nutritional value. This groat is gluten-free product and owing to this fact, it can be a supplement to the diet of celiac sufferers. Unfortunately, the value of millet is still not appreciated by Polish consumers. The article presents the method of obtaining the millet groat, characterizing its composition and the benefits of its consuming.
      KEY WORDS: millet groat, nutritive value, health-promoting food


  • 44 Short Supply Chain Management. Food Industry – Sebastian Jarzębowski, Natalia Bezat (DOI:10.15199/65.2018.1.10)
    • In the last two decades, the topic of sustainability has moved from the fringes of supply chain management research to the mainstream, in particular the short food supply chains (SFSCs). There are many different forms of SFSC, but they share a common characteristic of reduced numbers of intermediaries between the farmer or food producer, and the consumer. The growing interest in SFSCs reflects the consumer demand for quality and traceability. In this paper, we highlight the importance of SFSC for sustainable economic development and current situation of such innovations. The SFSCs have potential to increase farm value added (profit allocation), promote sustainable farming systems, diversify production and contribute to local economic development.
      KEY WORDS: supply chain management, short food supply chain, sustainable development, profit allocation, efficiency


  • 47 The Selected Fairs for the Food Industry Sector in 2018