Contents 1/2015

1/2015 Przemysł SpożywczyECONOMY

  • 2 Poland’s Position in Food Trade of the European Union – Łukasz Ambroziak
    • The aim of the article is to evaluate the position of Poland in agri-food trade of the European Union in the period of 2003-2013. After Poland’s accession to the EU, the share of agri-food products in its foreign trade increased (especially in exports; to 13% in 2013), and the surplus in agri-food trade was also systematically growing. The research results show that after Poland’s accession to the EU, its position in the EU agri-food trade has been distinctly strengthened. In 2013, Poland was the eighth food exporter and had the fourth largest trade surplus in the food products among the EU countries. The improvement of Poland’s position in the EU food trade is also apparent from the indices of revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Poland had the strongest position on the foreign markets in exports of tobacco and tobacco products, sugar confectionery, meat products, beverages as well as fruit and vegetable products.
      KEY WORDS: trade, agri-food products, Poland, European Union
  • 9 The Impact of Economic Recovery on the Food Sector – Roman Urban
    • Another economic recovery, although smaller than the expected one, leads already to acceleration of revenue growth, which, together with the food prices becoming cheaper, results in animation of domestic demand. The upward trend in retail sales of food has returned; the role of exports as a growth factor has been weakened and the declines in food industry production have appeared declines, but the boost in retail sales and a decline in food production may be temporary. The current economic recovery will not allow therefore accelerating the development of the food sector. The coming years may be a continuation of the relative stabilization of the Polish food industry.
      KEY WORDS: economic development, income of the population, the demand for food, the food industry production


  • 13 Microbiological Food Hazards. EU Regulations – Beata Paziak-Domańska, Beata Bartodziejska
    • In all EU Member States, the Regulations of the EU legislative bodies shall be directly applied; they are designed to ensure a high level of protection of human life and health and the protection of consumer interests. In Poland, the law on food safety and nutrition (Journal of Laws of 2006. No. 171, item 1225) regulates the general requirements that must be met to ensure that the foods present on the market are safe for human health. Every food manufacturer, regardless of size, profile and nature of production, is responsible for the safety and health quality of maprofil nufactured products, what is guaranteed by the quality management systems in place. One of the factors of food safety includes microbiological contaminants, as they can cause infections and food poisoning in humans. The Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005, with later amendments, defines two types of microbiological criteria, which relate to food safety and process hygiene.
      KEY WORDS: EU food law, microbiological criteria for foods
  • 20 Enzyme Preparations in Fish Product Technology – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak, Iwona Kasprzyk
    • Development of biotechnology and the dissemination of the production of enzyme preparations, with decreasing production costs, have caused that enzymes are commonly used in manufacturing practice to shape the functional, nutritional and organoleptic properties of food. Among the enzyme preparations employed in food technology, the largest group consists of proteases, then, amylases and lipases. The article presents an overview of enzyme preparations used in the fish product industry. On this background, the selected issues connected with using trans-glutaminase (TG) in fish product technology were presented. Application of the discussed enzyme allows obtaining of high-quality products with a correct texture, also from the raw materials of lower quality.
      KEY WORDS: fish products, enzymes, transglutaminase, food processing
  • 25 Food Packages –Exemplified Solutions – Iwona Chwastowska-Siwiecka, Natalia Skiepko, Mariusz S. Kubiak
    • The progress made in the field of technology and techniques in the packaging industry, as well as increased consumer demands are a challenge for developing new packages and modification of traditional food packaging systems. Innovative packaging should combine several functions, namely to enable extension of the shelf life of the food, to inform about the status of the product or preferably prevent physical, chemical and microbiological changes in the packed product. In addition, the package is one of the major tools for marketing communication between the consumer and the producer. Packaging of foodstuffs, mainly meat and meat products is developing thanks to the construction of new and efficient machines, fully automated, ensuring hygienic conditions and esthetic packaging. The strong competition among the manufacturers of packaging, packaging machines and food products is the foundation for the development of new types of packaging materials and packaging design, as well as packaging methods.
      KEY WORDS: absorbing pads, vacuum packing machines, thermoforming line for packaging
  • 30 Formaldehyde and Other Potentially Carcinogenic Substances. Food Packaging – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska, Jacek Postupolski
    • The article discusses the health risks resulting from the release of the substances of low molecular weight, being potentially carcinogenic to the human body, from food packaging. Examples of such substances include: formaldehyde and primary aromatic amines, such as 4,4’-oxydianiline, 4,4’-methylenedianiline, 2,4-toluenediamine, 3,3’- dimethylobenzidene. Particularly, a high risk of the release of such substances into food occurs in the case of the articles imported from China and Hong Kong. The laws, as established in the EU, are intended to ensure maximum safety of consumer health whereas inspection bodies (in Poland – State Sanitary Inspection) pay particular attention to the importance of checking the compliance of cookware made of polyamide and melamine within the framework of official food contact materials’ control.
      KEY WORDS: carcinogenic substances, formaldehyde, primary aromatic amines, melamine ware, polyamide ware
  • 32 Polyphenolic Compounds in Fruit Wines – Dorota Semik, Tomasz Tarko
    • The aim of the article is to present an overview on the content of phenolic compounds in fruit wines and to draw attention to the possibility of their beneficial effects on health due to the presence of biologically active ingredients. Apples, cherries, black currants and chokeberry are the most frequently subjected to fermentation fruits. Apple and cherry wines belong to the products with an average content of polyphenols. They are, however, richer in these compounds than white grape wine. Chokeberry and black currant fermented beverages have large antioxidant potential. Polyphenolic content of chokeberry wine is similar to red grape wine. Equally high content of polyphenols was recorded in currant wines.
      KEY WORDS: polyphenols, fruit wines, apple, cherry, black currant, chokeberry wine


  • 35 Fructose in Food Processing. Dietetic Controversies – Regina Wierzejska
    • More and more frequent application of high-fructose syrups in food industry has commenced a discussion on their impact on health. The fructose present in syrup has a great contribution in the consumption of sugar in the diet. For young people, soft drinks are primary source of fructose. According to the opinion of some experts intake of the fructose above 50 g per day can be a factor of the risk of obesity and lipid disorders. On the other hand, the fructose as relating to other sugars, has a very low glycaemic index. Therefore the European Commission allowed the beneficial health claim concerning to the postprandial glucose level in blood. This article presents actual data about the fructose, both in the dietetic as well as legal aspect.
      KEY WORDS: fructose, high-fructose syrup, diet, health, food law
  • 38 Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in Dietotherapy of Modern-Age Diseases – Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Andrzej Sidor
    • Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is an important element of traditional medicine because of its health and sensory values. Fruits of elderberry belong to a group of „super fruits”, characterized by a high content of nutritional components with a high biological activity. Its medicinal properties include, e.g. antioxidant activity, protection against cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Besides beneficial influence for human body, consumption of unripe elderberry fruits might lead to some allergic reactions.
      KEY WORDS: elderberry, Sambucus nigra, bioactive compounds, pro-health influence, antioxidant potential


  • 42 The Selected Fairs of Food Sector in 2015