Contents 11/2017; tome 71

ECONOMY

  • 2 Waste of Food in the European Union. Economic Aspect – Mariola Kwasek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.1)
    • The article presents the problem of food waste in the European Union, including households in Poland in economic aspect. Approximately 89 million tonnes of food are wasted annually in the European Union. The household sector has the greatest contribution to food waste. The households are responsible for about 47 million tonnes food waste, which equal to 98 billion Euros per year. In Poland, the most often discard food products include butcher’s meat products, breads, vegetables, fruits, yoghurts, potatoes, meat and milk. In 2016, the estimated value of thrown food products amounted to PLN 538 per person in all households in Poland. Consumer education, governmental and non-governmental initiatives are an important starting point for reducing food waste.
      KEY WORDS: food waste, costs, households, expenditure
  • 6 The Bottled Water – Why its Consumption is Increasing?  – Anna Gątarska, Bożena Garbowska, Monika Radzymińska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.2)
    • In the paper, the issues related to the market and consumption of bottled water and consumers’ behavior in the bottled water market is presented on the grounds of the literature review.  The bottled water consumption in Poland has been increased, in average, by four liters per capita per year over the last few years. This is the most commonly purchased and consumed non-alcoholic drink. Despite better quality of the municipal water, the increased consumption of the bottled water is still recorded. Such dynamic increase in the bottled water consumption has been undoubtedly affected by the increased consumers’ awareness and a greater emphasis on a healthier and more active lifestyle.
      KEY WORDS: bottled waters, consumption, consumers’ behaviour
  • 10 The Consumption of Bread and its Substitutes –  Małgorzata Zielińska
    • In the present paper, the analysis of the scale of production of the substitutes on the food market was carried out; the decrease of the bread consumption in favour of food substitutes was indicated. The undertaken problems were developed on the grounds of general statistical data of the Main Statistical Bureau (GUS) and own calculations as well as of the list and studies of the available literature – the studies included the period of 2013 – 2016. The research included the participation of the consumers of the bread and other food substitutes, that is, blue collar workers, teenagers and children and old people who preferred vegan or vegetarian diets. The object of the studies was bread and other baker’s products, and their substitutes. The author of the paper may state that the adoption of positive nutritional behaviours at the young age becomes a specific guarantee of good health and psycho-physical condition until the old age.
      KEY WORDS: the bread consumption, the bread substitutes, the consumer behaviour, the price of the bread and of the substitutes

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 16 Microbiological Quality of Food in the European Union Countries. RASFF Reports – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Monika Stasiak, Joanna Kowalska, Katarzyna Kucharek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.3)
    • The quality of food has a significant impact on human health and life. The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) was introduced with the aim to eliminate risks associated with the consumption of potentially hazardous food. RASFF notifications about frequency of the presence of pathogens in different kinds of food in 2012-2017 were discussed. The notifications about poultry meat and poultry meat products as well as meat and meat products (other than poultry) were the most frequently notified. The following pathogens were most often notified in food category: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp.
      KEY WORDS: RASFF, foodstuffs, pathogenic microorganisms
  • 20 Moulds in Food – a Difficult Competitor – Małgorzata Piotrowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.4)
    • Contamination of food by moulds is a serious economic problem, and due to production of toxic metabolites – mycotoxins – can be a threat to the health and life of the consumers. The article discusses the causes and effects of food contamination by moulds. The mechanisms of moulds’ defence allowing for their development in chilled, thermally processed, chemically preserved and water-reduced foods have been discussed.
      KEY WORDS: molds, food, threats, mycotoxins
  • 24 What is Colouring Foodstuff? – Małgorzata Ziarno, Dorota Zaręba
    • The application of natural dyes for food colouring has become a reality and has proven that the elimination of E-labeled ingredients is possible even at the industrial scale. Due to the correct labeling of foodstuffs, it is important in what form the dye is used: food additive or colouring foodstuff. Colouring foodstuff is a food or a characteristic food ingredient, separated from food by non-selective extraction. The most important consequence of such a distinction is that most of the prepared colouring foodstuffs are concentrates or non-selective color extracts derived from fruits, vegetables or other edible plants using physical processes. The current technology allows creating colouring foodstuff preparations of almost any color: yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, brown, black, blue or green.
      KEY WORDS: colouring foodstuff, extract, food additive, colouring properties
  • 28 Rapeseed Proteins – the Possibilities of Using in the Food Industry – Elżbieta Dłużewska, Anna Florowska, Magdalena Maszewska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.5)
    • In the article the rapeseed protein was characterized. The methods of isolating these proteins from the raw material were presented. The introduction of double-improved rapeseed (00) into cultivation favours a high interest in the use of rapeseed proteins for food production. The defatted meal contains 34 to 40% protein and is currently used as animal feed or as an organic fertilizer. Rapeseed proteins are characterized by a high nutritional value and good functional properties, which is why they can be used as a nutrient enhancing food ingredient or forming its structure and texture. Due to the specific properties of rapeseed proteins, they cannot be isolated, with satisfactory yield, by industrial methods used for soy protein production. A good solution may be the application of ultrafiltration and diafiltration to increase the efficiency of rapeseed protein isolation and to reduce the content of anti-nutritional substances.
      KEY WORDS: rapeseed protein, nutritional value, functional properties, protein isolation
  • 31 The Darkening of Potato Tubers – Opportunities to Reduce it – Elżbieta Wszelaczyńska, Jarosław Pobereżny, Katarzyna Gościnna, Jarosław Chmielewski, Sylwia Łaba (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.6)
    • Acceptance of potatoes present on the market by the consumers is based not only on estimation of their taste value, but also on their colour and susceptibility to darkening. The flesh of tubers in commercial varieties is usually white to yellow, which is directly affected by genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of biostimulator and storage in potato production technology with different directions of use on the tendency to enzymatic discoloration potential of tubers flesh. The least susceptible cultivar of potato to the tendency to discoloration potential was the ‚Gala’, intended for direct consumption. The use of biostimulator significantly influences the content of organic acids and reduces the tendency to enzymatic darkening of tubers irrespective the direction of potato use. Long-term storage significantly reduces ascorbic acid and increases chlorogenic acid, thereby increasing the tendency to discoloration potential of tubers flesh.
      KEY WORDS: biostimulant, organic acids, discoloration potential, potato cultivars, storage

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 35 Organic Food – Healthy Food in the 21st Century? – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król
    • Organic food has generally higher nutritional value than conventional food and is more valuable source of bioactive ingredients that have a positive effect on the consumer’s health. It is less processed and contains fewer additives. Use of synthetic pesticides – plant protection products, as well as hormones, stimulants and growth regulators is prohibited in the production of organic food. Organic products are also free from GMO. Higher quality of organic food is increasingly appreciated by consumers seeking a healthier alternative. Nowadays, organic products can be bought not only in the specialist shops but also in super- and hypermarkets, fairs and markets, as well as in hotels, restaurants and catering companies. Agro-ecotourism also gains an interest.
      KEY WORDS: organic food, certificate, quality, consumer
  • 39 Hypertension – a 21st Century Social Problem – Aleksandra Cichocka (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.11.7)
    • Hypertension is the most significant risk factor for premature death worldwide. 10.5 million adults in Poland suffer from hypertension. The main causes of hypertension are: unhealthy diet (including excessive salt intake), low physical activity, overweight and obesity. The article presents the epidemiology of hypertension and the adverse health effects that the condition causes; it discusses the reasons of improper pressure normalization, or lack thereof, in people with hypertension; and analyses how to improve this situation. The article presents the recommendations of the Polish Society of Hypertension, and European guidelines for lifestyle changes including diets (such as DASH diets) are recommended for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The importance of education for both those with hypertension and the general public on the healthy choice of foods has been emphasized. The food industry can play a particular role in the promotion of a healthy diet.
      KEY WORDS: hypertension, epidemiology, prevention, lifestyle modifications, DASH diet, recommendations of the Polish Society of Hypertension