Contents 11/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 11/2016ECONOMY

  • 2 International Competitiveness of Polish Food Industry in the Years 2003-2014 – Iwona Szczepaniak
    • Very good results of foreign trade and an improvement in competitiveness indices in the years 2003-2014 prove that the international competitiveness of the Polish food industry is growing. The progress that has been made in this area in the period of Polish membership in the European Union, i.e. strengthening of the position of Polish food industry enterprises in the EU market, was primarily due to economic conditions, such as freedom of trade of Poland with other EU Member States and the development of the global market. Certainly, it would not be so significant, however, without competitive advantages of Polish food producers.
      KEY WORDS: Food industry, competitiveness, foreign trade
  • 8 Limitation of Food Losses and Food Waste. Benefits for Society and Producers – Milena Lipińska, Małgorzata Wrzosek, Beata Bilska, Karol Krajewski, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
    • Food waste and losses because of their quantity are the main issue in many studies, where they are shown as social, economic and ethical problems. Data presented by FAO indicate that even 1/3 of all of food produced and being in turnover are not used according to their destiny. This phenomenon is very troubling because it applies to all stages of food chain „from field to the table” – from production to our households. One of three products, bought by the consumer, is wasted without opening it. Accordingly, the number of activities are undertaken in order to mitigate the losses. One of the solutions is MOST model, which meets the economic and social aspect ability to reduce food waste in Poland and support of people being most in need.
      KEY WORDS: food looses, food waste, model MOST

LAW

  • 12 Natural Flavourings – Legislation and Labelling – Joanna Gajda-Wyrębek, Jolanta Jarecka
    • Natural flavourings are one of the kinds of flavourings, defined in the European Union legislation. The rules of the natural flavourings labelling are also described in the legislation. The possibility of the use a picture of fruit or another ingredient on the label of flavoured product depends on what kind of flavourings are added to the product.
      KEY WORDS: flavourings, natural flavourings, labelling

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 15 Puffing of Pork: Effects of Process Conditions on Expansion Ratio – Tomasz Pawlak, Antoni Ryniecki, Jerzy Stangierski
    • The article presents the influence of selected parameters of microwave-vacuum drying and puffing (MVDP) of papain modified pork meat (musculus psoas major) on the expansion ratio (ER). The influence of porcine muscle tissue moisture content (MC), microwave energy level generated by the magnetron (EL), and vacuum absolute pressure in the drying drum (AP) on the examined characteristic was analyzed. It has been stated that the value of the expansion ratio ER depended on each of the analyzed parameters of the process. Slices of pork muscle with MC of 0.425 and 0.500 kg/kg wb achieved during the MVDP process the highest values of ER – in experiments in which EL and AP were set (based on literature review) to be equal to 1.625 kJ/g and 0.005 MPa, respectively. On the other hand, the analysis of the influence of EL on ER for constant values of MC and AP led to the conclusion that higher values of ER can be achieved when EL amounts to 1.408 kJ/g. The least influence on the volume expansion of samples had AP – a slight and gradual decrease of the value of ER together with increase in the value of AP higher than 0.024 MPa has been observed. The conducted research may pave the way for setting minimal and maximal value of every MVDP process parameter for its optimization that may determine the best combination of MC, EL and AP.
      KEY WORDS: pork, microwave-vacuum drying and puffing, expansion ratio
  • 22 Peptidomics of the Processed Meat Products and their Authenticity. Peptides on the Trail … – Magdalena Montowska
    • In the last decade there has been rapid development of modern, advanced mass spectrometry techniques and bioinformatics tools. Owing to them, peptidomics has evolved from proteomics as a new branch of science. It focuses not only on the analysis of proteins but also and above all, on the analysis of individual peptides in complex biological samples. An advantage of peptidomics based on mass spectrometry techniques is the possibility to distinguish not only between species but also between tissues and proteins within the same species. At present, the peptidomic studies are conducted in order to identify unique peptide markers in authenticity analysis, or in other words, to detect adulterations and to authenticate processed meat products. The article discusses the rules and definitions and presents analytical methods applied in peptidomics. It also discusses the potential of peptidomics to detect adulterations in meat products based on peptide markers derived from meat proteins.
      KEY WORDS: peptidomics, peptide markers, meat products, adulteration, mass spectrometry
  • 25 The Microbiological Sources of DHA – Iwona Gientka, Przemysław Grela, Anna M. Kot, Lidia Stasiak-Różańska
    • The main source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the human diet is fish meat. The article discusses the possibility of production of docosahexaenoic acid by the microbial cells. The ability to synthesize DHA is indicated by all microorganisms. Microalgae are the best producers of DHA. These include heterotrophic protist Crypthecodinium cohnii and the strains of microalgae Schizochytrium. They are employed in the industrial production of oils rich in DHA. The use of oil from microalgae was admitted to milk-like products, spreadable fats and food supplements. It should be expected that the assortment of food products enriched with microbial docosahexaenoic acid will be increasing.
      KEY WORDS: docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, microalgae, moulds, yeast, bacteria
  • 28 New Bacteria Strains with Probiotic Properties – Anna Rzepkowska. Aleksandra Ołdak, Aleksandra Szydłowska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
    • Probiotics are the selected strains of human origin with documented health-promoting properties. Nowadays, owing to the research work carried out in the world, a number of unique collections of microorganisms isolated from traditional and regional spontaneously fermented foods have been gathered. Strains isolated from such foods not only show the usefulness of the technology, but also the characteristics of which are defined as „probiotic”. The aim of this paper is to present the latest reports on probiotics, as well as to present several collections of microorganisms, including Polish collection of Lactobacillus isolated from fermented food, possible to use as starter cultures for food due to their probiotic qualities, anti-microbial properties and technological suitability.
      KEY WORDS: probiotic, Lactobacillus, starter cultures, food
  • 33 Process of Cleaning in CIP System. Mechanical Impacts – Joanna Piepiórka-Stepuk, Maciej Wawrzyniak, Dariusz Piotrowski
    • Flow velocity, Reynolds number and shear stress are the most relevant factors in the process of cleaning in CIP system. Generally, they are called mechanical interactions. The paper presents the latest trends in CIP system aimed at strengthening above mentioned interactions. Current research indicates that this can be achieved by introducing into the process, among others, a pulsed flow, ice pigging technology and ultrasounds. The results of the study are promising and give the opportunity to improve the process in many aspects – effectiveness, efficiency and energy intensity.
      KEY WORDS: cleaning in CIP system, pulsating flow, ice pigging, ultrasounds

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 37 Health-Promoting Effects of Pumpkin Seeds – Bartosz Kulczyński, Anna Gramza-Michałowska, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Dominik Kmiecik
    • Pumpkin is an herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The most common species are: Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima. Almost all parts of the pumpkin plant are edible, including fruit, seeds, leaves and flowers. Pumpkin seeds possess a high nutritional value; they are rich in protein, linoleic acid, fiber, and other bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, tocopherols and sterols. Pumpkin seeds and seed oil have been widely used in the traditional medicine in the treatment of urinary dysfunction, hypertension and in intestinal parasites control. Recent years studies indicate the hypotensive effect, lipid lowering and hypoglycemic properties of pumpkin seeds. They also possess antimicrobial and high antioxidant activity.
      KEY WORDS: pumpkin, Cucurbitaceae, pumpkin seeds, health-promoting properties
  • 40 Untypical Raw Materials for Juice Production – Łukasz Skoczylas, Małgorzata Tabaszewska, Sylwester Smoleń, Jacek Słupski, Anna Korus, Piotr Gębczyński, Marta Liszka-Skoczylas
    • One of the possibilities for development in juice market in Poland and the European Union is the use of unconventional raw materials in production. There are often plants containing many valuable healthy substances. They can not only expand the range of available products but also favorably affect the health of consumers. Such materials can be included among wheat grass and black radish. Juices of them are not sensory accepted by the respondents. The use of additives like other juices (e.g. apple) or the pre-treatment has a beneficial effect on their perception. Non-conventional materials may also include the vegetables enriched with mineral elements at the stage of cultivation (bio-fortification). The obtained products may be a so-called functional food and become a valuable source of elements which are deficit in daily diet.
      KEY WORDS: wheat grass, black radish, bio-fortification