Contents 11/2015

"Przemysł Spożywczy" 11/2015TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 2 The Most Common Foodborne Pathogens. Food-Borne Diseases in the EU Countries – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Magdalena Modzelewska, Łukasz Mąka, Kamila Pawłowska, Halina Ścieżyńska
    • Contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms causing food-borne diseases poses a real threat to human health. In 2013, in the European Union the most common cause of bacterial food outbreaks accounted for bacteria Campylobacter sp. (214 779 cases), Salmonella sp. (82 694), Yersinia sp. (6471),verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli VTEC (6043) and Listeria monocytogenes (1763). The occurrence of food outbreaks was associated with the consumption of contaminated eggs and egg products, fish and fish products, pork and pork products, seafood, mixed meat and meat products. The most common source of food-borne diseases included foods prepared at home, but also in restaurants, bars, schools and kindergartens.
      KEY WORDS: pathogens, food-borne diseases, food
  • 6 Harmful Substances Originating on Surfaces of Food Processing Machinery. Food Processing Equipment – Marzena Pawlicka, Małgorzata Mazańska
    • In the article, the risks resulting from the release of harmful substances to human health from machine parts in contact with food have been discussed. The types of substances that can be released from various materials commonly used in the food industry, such as plastics, rubbers and silicones, metal alloys and an adverse effect on the human body primary aromatic amines, phthalates and metals (chromium and nickel) have been presented. Special attention was paid to the legal requirements which should be met by the materials constituting the surfaces in contact with food in food processing equipment.
      KEY WORDS: food processing machinery, food contact materials, migration, food contaminants
  • 9 Salmonella in Poultry Meat – Krystyna Kowal
    • A significant increase in production and consumption of poultry meat poses a threat of growth in the number of food poisoning, caused by Salmonella. The main reservoir of Salmonella is poultry and the predominant serotypes are Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. The article discusses the microbiological contamination of poultry meat, sources of contamination with Salmonella and the methods of its detection. Safety and hygiene criteria of poultry meat production are also discussed.
      KEY WORDS: poultry, Salmonella, detection, safety and hygiene criteria
  • 12 Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Environmental Conditions – Klaudia Szewczuk, Anna Misiewicz
    • Environmental conditions are crucial for the growth of microorganisms in food products. Temperature, pH and the presence of acids, water activity, UV radiation, the addition of NaCl and preservatives, or the percentage content of gases, have a direct effect on the intensity or inhibition of growth as well as on the formation of characteristic structures or biologically active substances, produced by microorganisms. The study of these aspects helps to improve the food preservation methods and to introduce new methods to ensure its safety. In this article, we discuss the environmental factors affecting growth of widespread human pathogenic microorganism which is Listeria monocytogenes.
      KEY WORDS: food products, Listeria monocytogenes, environmental conditions
  • 18 Applications of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria – Corinna Markowicz, Marcin T. Schmidt
    • Polysaccharides are substances which have numerous applications in the food industry. Their presence in food can improve sensory properties, texture and stability of products. They are natural compounds, synthesized, among others, by lactic acid bacteria. Bacterial exopolysaccharides ingested with food often have a beneficial effect on human health [20]. They can therefore provide a safe alternative for many additives used in the food industry. In many fermented products, such as yoghurt and kefir, exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria may occur naturally. The discovery and characterization of these compounds in the mid-nineteenth century resulted in new possibilities of their use in order to improve the quality of food.
      KEY WORDS: exopolysaccharides, food additives, lactic acid bacteria
  • 21 Herbal Raw Materials Seasoning in Food Processing – Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak, Iwona Kasprzyk
    • Herbs and spices have a long history both as a raw material of culinary and medicinal additives. They constitute an integral part of the daily diet. Herbal raw materials can be considered as one of the first components of „functional foods”. Due to the presence of nutrients and non-nutritive – biologically active compounds, are widely used in food industry as compounds that make diversified taste, smell or color of the products. Herbs and spices are used as natural antioxidants with preservative properties, components of the preservative properties, antibacterial and anticancer agents. Overall, herbal additives are used in food additives in order to consolidate their natural features or confer the properties desired by the consumers, and sometimes, to prolong their shelf-life. Raw herbal spices can be used to replace less desirable food ingredients such as salt, sugar and fat. Their application also allows employing them for decoration of dishes.
      KEY WORDS: herbs, spices, food processing
  • 26 Basic Terms of Process Control: the On-Off Control System – Antoni Ryniecki, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Anna Pilarska
    • This article explains the basic terms of process control: dynamic process as an object of control, process variable called also controlled variable, control (or manipulated) variable, control system, control with the feed-back loop as well as the principle of operation and quality indicators of the on-off control. To show indicators determining the quality of the on-off control, changes of process variable vs. time during this type of control were drawn. This was done based on: depicted static characteristic of a typical on-off controller, and parameters that characterize the dynamics of the object – a typical process of heat flow in a tank. Two parameters of the object (time-constant and time-delay) were drawn graphically using the step-response characteristic of the above mentioned thermal-process.
      KEY WORDS: automatic process control, feed-back control, on-off control, properties of the controllers and objects of control, quality of the on-off control


  • 30 Possibilities of Using Glucomannan in Health-Promoting Food – Danuta Górecka, Krzysztof Dziedzic, Emilia Szafarz, Magdalena Szafarz
    • Konjac glucomannan is polysaccharide classified as a soluble dietary fiber fraction and is obtained from the root of the plant Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch. The article describes glucomannan and presents the possibility of using in products such as: cookies, fruit bars and “fruit parchment”. Sensory evaluation of products with the glucomannan has demonstrated the possibility of its use in food production.
      KEY WORDS: konjac glucomannan, chemical structure, application
  • 33 The Nutritional Value of Avocado – Bartosz Kulczyński, Anna Gramza-Michałowska
    • Persea americana commonly known as avocado, is an evergreen tree belonging to the Lauraceae family. The plant originates from southern Mexico. In traditional medicine avocado was used in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia, and stomachache and gastroduodenal ulcers. Avocado is a high nutritional value fruit. It contains valuable fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds. The literature indicates a number of health-promoting properties, especially hypoglycemic and blood lipid lowering effects. In addition, the avocado has a high antioxidant potential. Avocados are served as vegetable and fruit salads, ingredient in dips, soups, ice cream and desserts.
      KEY WORDS: avocado, antioxidants, health-promoting properties
  • 36 Lecithin – Role and Application – Izabela Podgórska, Marcelina Olszak, Ewa Solarska
    • Lecithins are a group of high-quality organic compounds of natural origin, belonging to the phospholipids. They constitute an important building component of cell membrane. Lecithin belongs to the category of functional food ingredients, which helps the body to maintain good physical and mental condition and prevent some diseases. Due to the favorable properties it has found widespread use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Lecithin is added to improve the organoleptic properties and stability of the final product. The food industry employs lecithin as emulsifiers, which facilitate the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Lecithin also plays other functions including antioxidant, viscosity and fluidity regulator of the chocolate mass and prevents splashing fat during frying. The products enriched with lecithin are mainly chocolate, dessert concentrates, margarine, mayonnaise and bread.
      KEY WORDS: lecithin, phospholipids, functional food


  • 40 Scientific research in the process of defining Polish vision of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The III Congress of Agricultural Sciences
  • 42 POLAGRA supports development of enterprises. Poznań, 21-24 September 2015 – Beata Marchand
  • 44 Business Information