Contents 10/2018; tome 72

ECONOMY

  • 4 Dairy Industry in Poland – Mirosława Tereszczuk (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.1)
    • The dairy industry is one of the most important sectors of food industry in Poland. In 2017, the supply-demand situation on the milk and dairy products market in Poland was determined by the good situation on the international market, which was reflected in the high global prices of dairy products, mainly butter and cheese. The improvement of the global market situation was the main reason for the increase in prices at all stages  of the national marketing chain of  the dairy industry. Large supplies  of raw material and high sales prices resulted in an increase in the production of most dairy products. In the domestic milk market, the excess of supply over demand persists, hence export of dairy products plays an important role in the context of the market balance and the economic  and financial situation of the dairy industry in Poland. After fourteen  years of membership in the EU,  the Polish dairy industry stands  out from other EU countries. Poland  is the fourth producer of dairy  products in EU, with an 8% share.
      KEY WORDS: dairy industry, production, consumption, foreign trade
  • 12 The Seafood Market in the EU – Consumption and Expenditures – Piotr J. Bykowski (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.2)
    • The household expenditure for fisheries and aquaculture products the EU reached peak in 2016, at EUR 54,8 billion. Spain has the highest household expenditure in the EU, while Portugal has maintained the leadership in terms of per capita spending. It recorded EUR 327, which was three times the EU average. Moreover, among the top countries, it has also recorded the most intense growth rate, with increase of 63% since 2000. Consumer attitudes, identifying where purchases of fish and seafood mainly occur, were also presented. The fisheries and aquaculture industry supplies fish and seafood through different distribution channels. There are 50 EU quality schemes registered as geographical indications (GiS) including Protected Designations of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) and in seafood sector, the Traditional Specalities Guaranteed (TSG).
      KEY WORDS: seafood market,  consumption

TECHNICS – TECHNOLOGY

  • 18 Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Ice Cream Offered on the Market – Jolanta Król, Aneta Karasińska, Aneta Brodziak, Joanna Barłowska, Monika Kędzierska-Matysek (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.3)
    • For several years, there has been an upward trend in the consumption of ice cream in Poland, especially in the summer season. It is related to the high seasonality of both ice cream production and consumption. Aeration of ice cream and their susceptibility to melting cause that these products are particularly sensitive to temperature fluctuations, and because of their chemical composition, they are an excellent medium for the development of undesirable microflora. The aim of the study was to assess the physicochemical and microbiological quality of ice cream, including industrial and traditional ones, available on the Radom market. Ice cream samples offered by a regional ice cream as an own product (traditional), and distributed by the nationwide producers (Nestle, Algida and Zielona Budka) – industrial ice cream were collected for the research. A total of 40 ice cream samples were collected. The samples were collected in the summer season (July-August) and winter season (December-January). The contents of fat, total protein, dry matter, acidity (pH and °SH) and fluffiness were determined in each sample of ice cream. In accordance with the applicable standards, the detection of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and determination of the number of Enterobacteriaceae were also carried out. The ice cream from regional producers was generally of low quality. As many as 75% of the samples did not meet the microbiological requirements in terms of the number of Enterobacteriaceae. It indicates a failure to comply with hygiene during their production, especially in the summer season. Significantly greater aeration was characteristic for the industrial ice cream (98.12%), containing more dry matter and fat compared to the traditional products. Both traditional and industrial ice cream did not exceed the standard in terms of fluffiness.
      KEY WORDS: ice cream, quality, producers, production season
  • 26 Nutritional and Technological Determinants for the Extent of Reducing the Lactose Content in Milk and Dairy Products – Magdalena Świątek, Włodzimierz Bednarski, Mariusz Śliwiński (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.4)
    • This work discusses the importance of lactose in nutrition. The problem of hypolactasia and lactose intolerance is pointed out, with significant influence of ethnic and genetic factors. Diagnostic possibilities and methods of treatment of lactose intolerance are presented. The properties of β-galactosidase preparations and technological aspects of obtaining products with hydrolised lactose are discussed. Recommendations regarding a lactose-free diet are presented and the need to increase the range of products with reduced lactose content is indicated. This paper indicates the threshold levels of lactose in some EU countries with reference to the use of the terms “lactose-free” and “low-lactose”.
      KEY WORDS: lactose, hypolactasia,  intolerance, lactose hydrolysis
  • 30 Wastewater Treatment in Dairy Plants – Paweł Reder, Izabela Kruszelnicka, Dobrochna Ginter-Kramarcztk (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.5)
    • There are huge opportunities in the dairy industry, due to the number of plants and the scale of production. Dairy  sewage is characterized by high  concentration of organic compounds and the diurnal and seasonal variability of composition and quantity, which adversely affects the process of their treatment. The article discusses current methods of treatment of dairy sewage, especially biological ones in oxygen or anaerobic reactors as well as in wetlands systems with surface flow. Attention was also paid to the methods of deep oxidation and membrane techniques.
      KEY WORDS: dairy industry, dairy sewage, cleaning methods or technologies
  • 38 Influence of High Pressure on Quality and Stability of Ready–Made Meals and Meat Products – Barbara Krzysztofik (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.6)
    • The effectiveness and effects of using HPP for food production have been well investigated and passed many tests at every stage of the production process, showing many important benefits that do not exhaust all expectations of food producers and consumers. Further research on the use of the HPP method for food preservation is required. The results so far have confirmed the destructive effects of high pressures on microorganisms. It is the more effective the higher the pressure were applied, however some microorganisms are resistant even at the pressure reaching 1200 MPa, while too low pressure can increase the rate of multiplication of microorganisms. The work aims to present the current research results and the advantages and disadvantages of using this method to extend the shelf life of selected food products.
      KEY WORDS: food preservation, high pressure (HPP), minimally processed food

FOOD – FEEDING

  • 43 Study of Antioxidant Compounds in Fruits: Saskatoon Berry, Black Chokeberry and Black Cherry – Alicja Ponder, Magdalena Morka, Ewelina Hallmann (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.7)
    • There is constantly increasing interest in less known species of fruits rich in antioxidant compounds. The aim of the study was to investigate the content of antioxidant compounds from the polyphenol group and vitamin C in fruit of little known fruit species such as Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier Medik.), black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) and black cherry (Prunus serotina (Ehrh) Borkh.). This research has shown the content of biologically active compounds from the group of polyphenols (anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids) and content of vitamin C. It has been shown that examined fruits are a rich sources of those compounds, so that they can play a significant role in the prevention of many common illnesses of XXI century.
      KEY WORDS: vitamin C, polyphenolic compounds, black chokeberry, saskatoon berry, black cherry

LAW

  • 48 Elements Harmful to Human Health in the Light of the Work of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission – Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniek, Tomasz Szynal, Jacek Postupolski (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.8)
    • The article presents issues related to the activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, with particular emphasis on the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Committee on Contaminants in Foods. Attention was drawn to current issues raised by the Committee relevant to food safety and international trade as well as some important documents developed in the past in this field regarding heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic.
      KEY WORDS: Codex Alimentarius,  heavy metals, food,  code of practice
  • 50 Priorities for the Safety of Food in the European Union – Halina Makała (DOI 10.15199/65.2018.10.9)
    • The paper presents the priorities of food safety in the European Union. The EU’s position and policy on food security and the tracking system for live animals as well as food and feed of animal origin are discussed. Legal regulations concerning statements and conditions of their application, manifestations of deterioration of food quality and safety in Poland, consumer nutrition awareness and tasks facing the solution of the problem of food waste reduction are presented. KEY WORDS: food safety, consumer protection, safe

THE MEMORY

  •  55  of  Prof. Antoni Rutkowski