Contents 10/2017


  • 2 Prices for Food in Poland and the European Union in 2016 – Iwona Szczepaniak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.1)
    • The purpose of the present paper is to show the differentiation in food prices in the European Union in 2016 and to perform the analysis of price comparative advantages of Polish food producers on the EU market. The activities, being undertaken by the enterprises are aiming at improvement of competitiveness which is expressed by better competitive position on the market and acquiring comparative advantages in a longer period of time. The so-far source of competitive advantages of Polish food producers on the EU market included first of all, cost-price advantages. Along with the on-going integration of Polish agri-food market with the EU market, the equalization of domestic prices and the EU prices is proceeding on. In consequence, the increasing utilization of non-price competition instruments by food producers is indispensable.
      KEY WORDS: prices, food, competitiveness, Poland, European Union


  • 8 Milk and Dairy Products as a Source of Bioactive Components – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Joanna Barłowska (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.2)
    • Consumers increasingly pay attention to the health-promoting properties of food, including dairy products. The particular value of these products especially results from the content of specific milk components such as whey proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, calcium or vitamin B2. These components show multi-directional effects on the human body, reducing the risk of many civilization diseases. They naturally occur in milk in small amounts, and therefore, due to their beneficial properties, are increasingly used for the enrichment of innovative dairy products as well as other categories of foodstuffs. In view of the numerous health benefits of milk components, milk and dairy products should be promoted as a part of a healthy lifestyle, ensuring health and well-being. This is the way to meet the demands of contemporary consumers who are looking for products that have a positive effect on their health.
      KEY WORDS: casein, whey proteins, peptides, fatty acids, vitamins, elements
  • 14 Plant-Based Milk Beverages – Characteristics and Availability in Poland – Zuzanna Walczak, Anna Florowska, Krzysztof Krygier (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.3)
    • The increasing incidence of allergy to milk, the development of civilization diseases and the large number of people who refuse to consume animal-origin products cause the increasing availability of vegetable drinks. Raw materials for the production of vegetable beverages include soybeans, almonds, hazelnuts, rice, oats and coconuts. Vegetable drinks can be considered as a healthier and less calorie alternative to cow’s milk because they contain less fat, including more unsaturated fatty acids and less sugars. Unlike milk, they do not contain lactose and cholesterol and, moreover, they are the source of fiber. The world market of vegetable beverages is growing very dynamically. There are products in various flavors, as well as drinks enriched with, among others, in calcium and vitamin D, B12, B2, or instant products. The Polish vegetable beverage market is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.
  • 22 What Should we Know about GMO in the Aspect of Dairy Products’ Voluntary Labelling – Anna Kaliszewska-Suchodoła (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.4)
    • In response to the growing prevalence of GMO employed in animal nutrition, the consumers are worried about GM-DNA transition to milk or meat products from animals fed GM-feed. Reliable quantitative methods are needed to comply with the current EU regulations on the mandatory as well as voluntary labeling of genetically modified organisms in food and feed products. Protein and DNA-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs analysis. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that meat or milk derived from the animals receiving GM crops are less safe from those derived from the animals fed the conventional crops. Nevertheless, the consumers should have a free choice whether to purchase GM food or food derived from the animals fed GM-feed and manufacturers should create reliable NON-GMO labelling systems.
      KEY WORDS: genetically modified feed, GMO transfer to milk, PCR technics
  • 30 Health Qualities of Food Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria – Monika Pytka, Monika Kordowska-Wiater, Jarosław Mazurkiewicz
    • Consumers are increasingly looking for foods that have many health benefits. This should be utilized to promote, on our market, fermented products of vegetable and animal origin produced with the participation of lactic acid bacteria. The positive effect of these bacteria on the human body is documented by many published research results. However, these research results are not known to wider consumer groups.  Producers have an important task to promote their products in terms of their health benefits as well as the presence of live cultures of lactic bacteria and their metabolites. Although it has long been known that consuming fermented foods containing live cultures of lactic acid bacteria is beneficial for our health, there is still a great need for advertising such food products.
      KEY WORDS: fermented  food, lactic acid bacteria, health
  • 34 Recovery of Proteins from Fish by-products. The pH-shift Method – Mariusz Szymczak, Angelika Dominiczak, Barbara Szymczak (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.5)
    • The fish industry is one of the food sectors, producing the highest quantities of by-products. The by-products are most often recycled and composted, followed by fishmeal or animal feed, and the least often, the products for human consumption. Fish by-products contain high amounts of protein with the highest nutritional and functional values. Therefore, more and more attempts are undertaken to recover the protein in a form of preparations, which are then used for improving the nutritional and sensory properties and yield mass of products in the food industry. One of the better methods for recovering proteins from by-products is iso-electric precipitation, which consists in dissolving the protein in acid or alkaline solution, and then precipitating the protein at an iso-electric point. The main advantages include high efficiency and low cost of pH-shift method, as well as high purity and good functional properties of isolates. Therefore, this method is good for the recovery of proteins in the meat and vegetable industries. The isolates obtained are also used in special-purpose foods or in the packaging and medical industries.
      KEY WORDS: fish by-products, proteins, iso-electric precipitation, pH-shift, isolates, functional properties
  • 40 A Traditional Icehouse as an Eco-Energy Food Storage – Marta Gosz, Rafał Andrzejczyk
    • The article describes the structure and principle of operation of natural food coolers, the so-called icehouses. Several examples of such storage were presented along with a description of their construction. Based on the example of one solution there was explained in detail the principle of the processes, taking place inside the vault. The authors have stressed the environmental neutrality of this type of buildings. The summary compares the advantages and disadvantages of the analyzed solution against compressor refrigeration equipment. KEY WORDS: ice, free convection, natural ventilation, melting


  • 44 Salmonella spp. – Current Food Hazard – Elżbieta Maćkiw, Joanna Kowalska, Monika Stasiak, Katarzyna Kucharek (DOI:10.15199/65.2017.10.6)
    • Salmonella spp. are responsible for causing several gastrointestinal disorders associated with the consumption of contaminated food and water in Poland.  The second most frequently foodborne illness in the European Union after campylobacteriosis are salmonelosis. In 2016 was observed growth in the incidence of salmonelosis in Poland. According to the data of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF), the number of isolated Salmonella spp., mainly from poultry meat, is increasing.
      KEY WORDS: Salmonella spp., food, microbiological contamination, safety criteria, RASFF