Contents 10/2016; tome 70

Przemysł Spożywczy 10/2016ECONOMY

  • 2 Innovation: Science and Industry – Janusz Franciszek Pomianowski, Tomasz Żmijewski
    • The aim of the article is to present the essence of innovation, the importance of cooperation between science and industry for the entire economy and individual industries and enterprises. The article cites different definitions of innovation as well as its internal and external sources. It classifies innovation according to different criteria. It also describes the processes of commercialization and technology transfer in the process of innovation showing different procedures of research commercialization applied in Poland. Moreover, the article identifies the determinants of success in the process of knowledge and technology transfer. The correlations between science and industry in terms of innovation and commercialization are presented in detail, given special attention to existing inhibitors of commercialization process and the way of overcoming them. The article describes also the conditions of innovation processes’ efficiency and presents the basics of state policy in terms of innovation and commercialization. Thanks to the value of synthetic innovation indicator, Poland was compared with other European Union countries.
      KEY WORDS: innovation, commercialization, technology transfer, innovation policy
    • 12The Situation on the Dairy Market in 2016 – Jadwiga Seremak-Bulge
      • Bearish tendencies on the world market of dairy products, caused by a strong increase in milk supply, overlapping with weakening demand in developing economies were transferred onto domestic market. The situation is similar to that one observed in crisis years of 2008-2009. As affected by a dynamic rise in supply, raw milk prices (farm gate) in 2015 declined by 17.3%, factory gate prices by 9.1% and retail prices of milk products by 3.1% while retail prices of butter declined by 10.1%. Downward tendencies were also observed in the first 5 months of 2016. Despite it, the growth rate of procurement, triggered by high prices in 2013-2014 as well as by preparations to quota withdrawal, conducted at large dairy farms remains at a high level.
        KEY WORDS: dairy market, dairy industry, prices on the dairy market
  • 17 The Poles on the path towards sustainable consumption – Ewa Mazur-Wierzbicka
    • The issues discussed in this article focus on the presentation of the stages in reaching the ecologically-motivated market behavior by a consumer. It constitutes the main objective of the article. The paper consists of the theoretical part in which the stages in reaching the ecologically-motivated market behavior are described and the analysis of data on the level of environmental awareness among the Poles and their pro-ecological behavior in respect of the consumption. This article is based on the available references and secondary data provided by the Institute for Sustainable Development and the Ministry of Environment.
      KEY WORDS: environmental awareness, pro-ecological behavior of consumers, sustainable consumption, consumer


  • 22 Fermented Milks – Health-promoting Properties – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król
    • In respect of the composition of specific microflora, fermented milks are generally classified into: yogurt, yogurt with altered microflora, acidophilus milk, kefir and koumiss. During the recent years, these products have become very popular among the consumers due to their nutritional and health-promoting properties. The positive effect of the fermented milks on the human body depends on the strain of bacteria used. Lactic acid bacteria contribute to increasing the absorption of nutrients, and participate in the synthesis of vitamins, alleviation of lactose intolerance symptoms and suppression of undesirable microflora in the intestines. In turn, the probiotic strains play an important role in stabilizing the preferred composition of the intestinal microflora, stimulation of the immune system, and prevention of intestinal disorders, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
      KEY WORDS: yogurt, kefir, lactic fermentation, health, probiotics
  • 30 Double Force of the Freezing – Grzegorz Pawlonka
    • CryoAssistTM method – a cryogenic support of traditional freezing methods is used to pre-freeze product, usually before further freezing. The application of cryogenic freezer before mechanical one accelerates freezing, improves the quality of frozen food and allows preparation of the product to the next stage of production and avoidance of the product’s sticking to the belt or product’s clamping. Cryo-mechanical system is more flexible and efficient. The minimum participation of cryogenics at the most important technology stage improves the economics of the process. In the case of certain products with seasonal supply, there are the peaks in demand for freezing. Expansion of the traditional freezing by the purchase of an additional tunnel or an increase in the engine capacity, to cover periodic demand, is often economically not reasonable. Increased flexibility given by cryo-mechanical system creates the possibility to gain an additional production.
      KEY WORDS: cryogenic freezing, Cryoassist, cryomechanic methods, crust freezing, quality of freezing, IQF
  • 38 Yeast Identification – Modifications of Classical Methods – Krystyna Kowal
    • There are different methods of yeast identification – classical methods and their modifications and modern methods based on molecular biology. Identification of yeast using conventional methods is labour-intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a reason to use alternative techniques that allow faster and more precise identification. This article presents modification of classical methods of yeast identification including miniaturized biochemical tests, automated systems and chromogenic and fluorogenic media.
      KEY WORDS: yeasts, identification, modification of classical methods


  • 41 Pomace as an Addition to Shortcakes – Ewa Siemianowska, Monika Radzymińska, Marek Aljewicz, Józef Tyburski, Andrzej Wesołowski, Agnieszka Barszcz
    • Pomace, resulting after juice production, is abundant in bioactive substances with pro-health activity. So, it can be used as valuable component of shortcakes. Within the ecologic processing project, the shortcakes with addition of 10, 20 and 30% of strawberry, raspberry, black chokeberry, black currant and apple pomace were baked. White and brown flours of old wheat varieties: einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and spring and winter spelt were used. Sensory assessment of the cakes was performed, and antioxidant activity, preservation properties: moisture, water activity, and some mechanical properties after four days of baking were determined. Addition of the pomace differently influenced the shortcakes hardness but it did not cause a considerable sensory and preservation parameters. High antioxidant activity at the level of 52.5-66.5% was determined. It has been proved that enrichment of the shortcakes with pomace, even at a level of 30%, is possible without considerable worsening their textural properties.
      KEY WORDS: organoleptic assessment, antioxidant status, preservation properties, mechanical properties
  • 47 Hydroxymethylfurfural in Food – Should We be Afraid of it? – Andrzej Cendrowski, Iwona Ścibisz, Marta Mitek, Daria Oyrzanowska
    • HMF is a well known contaminant of food which is formed during the process of heating, and what is more, the consumption of which is higher than that recorded for other toxicants, such as acrylamide or furan. HMF can be used as a quality marker for many processed food products like fruits, coffee, honey, milk and many others. There are no official standards defining the acceptable levels of HMF in products. High concentration of HMF is cytotoxic; it causes irritation of eyes, upper respiratory tract, skin and mucosa. The carcinogenicity of HMF has been confirmed in studies performed on rodents. In the light of new discoveries on genotoxic potential of HMF, it is necessary to re-evaluate carefully the need of reducing the content of HMF in products subjected to the process of heating and to evaluate concentrations to which particular population can be exposed.
      KEY WORDS: HMF, carcinogenicity, temperature, Maillard reactions
  • 50 Impact of „5 portions of Vegetables, Fruits or Juice” Campaign on Consumer’s Awareness – Barbara Groele, Krystyna Gutkowska
    • Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Poland is lower than in other countries of the European Union, it also differs from the recommendations of nutrition experts. The importance of fruits and vegetables in everyday diet is reflected by their position in the Pyramid of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity, proposed in 2016 by the National Food and Nutrition Institute. In order to increase the number of fruits and vegetables in Poles’ diet, many educational actions, directed towards different social groups, are being undertaken. Additionally, social campaigns promoting nutritional value of products from this group are taking place. The educational programme: “5 portions of vegetables, fruits, or juice”, as conducted since 2008 by the Polish Association of Juice Producers (KUPS), is a grand example of such campaign. The goal of this article is to present the data illustrating the effectiveness of this program, and to justify further conduction of “5 portions of vegetables, fruits, or juice” information campaign, which creates correct eating habits, especially among mothers and children.
      KEY WORDS: fruit, vegetables, juice, consumer