Contents 10/2014

Przemysł Spożywczy 10/2014ECONOMY

  • 2 Economic and Financial Situation of the Dairy Industry – Jadwiga Drożdż
    • The dairy industry is a major production sector of food and beverages. Its production accounts for about 13% of the value of sold production of the whole food industry, with participation in employment and agri-food exports at the level of about 9%. Milk processing is a branch characterized by relatively good economic situation and a stable and secure financial state, but profitability indicators are not high. Recently, the mentioned indices have decreased and they are constantly lower than in the whole food industry, but the profitability still exceeds the return on capital of bank deposits or government bonds.
      KEY WORDS: dairy industry, economic and financial situation, profitability
  • 8 Prices for Food in Poland and in the European Union – Iwona Szczepaniak
    • The purpose of the article is to show diversification of consumer prices of food in the European Union and to analyze the competitive price advantages of Polish producers of food on the EU market. The activities as undertaken by the enterprises are aimed at the increase of competitiveness, being expressed by better competitive position on the market and achievement of competitive advantages in the longtime period. The cost-price advantages were, first of all, the so-far sources of the competitive advantages of Polish producers on the EU market. Along with the progressing integration of the Polish agri-food market with the market of the EU, the convergence of domestic prices with the EU prices is going on. In consequence, the employment of non-price instruments of competing by food producers is indispensable.
      KEY WORDS: competitiveness, food sector, prices, European Union


  • 14 The Problem of Membrane Fouling in the Dairy Processing – Bogdan Dec, Marek Juśkiewicz
    • Membrane processes are fast developing, processing separation techniques in the food industry. Progress in the production of membranes and membrane installations’ design is reflected in their wider and more specialized application, especially in the dairy industry. However, despite these efforts, the phenomenon of membrane fouling, inevitable in membrane filtration and negatively affecting its performance can be a key factor in the success of the implementation of these techniques on an industrial scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to attempt to narrow the gap between the industrial practice and research work in the field of the knowledge of the mechanisms, governing membrane fouling.
      KEY WORDS: membrane processes, dairy industry, permeate flux, concentration polarization, membrane fouling
  • 18 Safety of Food Contact Materials and Products in the European Union. RASFF System – Marzena Pawlicka, Andrzej Starski, Monika Mania, Małgorzata Rebeniak. Małgorzata Mazańska, Tomasz Szynal, Jacek Postupolski
    • The article discusses the basic principles for the operation of the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed – RASFF. It presents the types of threats and alerts on materials and products intended to come into contact with food which in the recent years has been subjected to notification to the RASFF system.
      KEY WORDS: RASFF system, food contact materials and products, migration


  • 24 Marking on the Nutritional Value of Ice Cream. What Should the Label Contain? – Iwona Kasprzyk, Joanna Markowska, Elżbieta Polak
    • From the 13th of December 2014, the Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers will be applied. From the 13th of December 2016 the second part of this document will become the obligation for the producers. They will be obliged to place the energy and nutrition information on the label. This means big changes for many sectors of the food industry. The new rules harmonize labeling requirements. The labels designed in accordance with the new rules will contain the new data. This information should provide high level of health protection for consumers and facilitate their conscious choices.
      KEY WORDS: food labeling, ice cream, nutritional value, the regulation No 1169/2011


  • 30 Fermented Milk Products as a Source of γ-Aminobutyric Acid – Anna Szosland-Fałtyn, Joanna Królasik
    • Recently, consumers, when paying a lot of attention to healthy nutrition and lifestyle, prefer more willingly functional food. Therefore, the manufacturers compete in the introduction of food products containing many different bioactive substances. Among them, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a subject of great interest. GABA plays inhibitory neurotransmitter role in human body. It is responsible for the relaxation of skeletal muscles, and also has sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, diuretic and blood pressure-lowering properties. Low level of GABA or its functional impairment causes neurological and psychiatric disorders such as depression, epilepsy, anxiety, insomnia, which are dramatically risen among the public. Due to many benefits of GABA, there is a need to introduce it to daily diet. The direct addition of synthetic GABA to food leads to various side effects that have not been reported after consumption of natural GABA. Natural methods for the synthesis GABA or increasing the concentration of this bioactive component in diet are actively pursued. The application of appropriately selected strains of lactic acid bacteria with the ability of GABA producing can be an excellent solution.
      KEY WORDS: γ- aminobutyric acid, GABA, lactic acid bacteria, milk fermented products
  • 34 Vitamin D – its Function and Importance for Human – Agnieszka Zaborska, Jolanta Król, Aneta Brodziak
    • The term vitamin D refers mainly to two of its forms, i.e. vitamins D2 and D3. Vitamin D2 is present in plant tissues, yeasts and fungi, while vitamin D3 is produced in organisms of animals. Vitamin D3 can be derived from either dietary sources or can be produced in the skin during an exposure to sunlight. The main role of vitamin D is to regulate calcium and phosphate management in the body. It also affects blood system and insulin resistance. Geographical location of Poland makes the effective synthesis of vitamin D with the participation of the sun impossible, especially in the autumn-winter months. For this reason, an achievement and maintenance the optimum concentration of this vitamin in the body should be based on supporting it by the feed supply. It is worth remembering that the content of vitamin D in food is positively correlated with the amount of fat. The richest sources of this vitamin include fresh, oily fish, fish oil, as well as high-fat dairy products.
      KEY WORDS: vitamin D, biological functions, dietary recommendations, food sources
  • 39 Prediction of Listeria monocytogenes Growth in Milk and Cream. The Impedimetric Method – Kamil Adamczewski, Jarosław Kowalik
    • The purpose of the study was to determine the rate growth of Listeria monocytogenes, which purposefully contaminated the samples of pasteurized milk and cream. The samples were stored at temperatures ranging from 3 to 21°C. The measurement of L. monocytogenes cells was performed by Bactometer M64 (bioMérieux) using phenomenon of impedance. Impedimetric method allows detecting the presence as well as determining the number of microorganisms in the food product by analysis of the changes in electrical properties of the microbial medium. There was used selective, modified microbiological BHI (bioMérieux) culture medium; the employed device was calibrated against the classical giczne BHI (bioMérieux), a urządzenie plate method. The obtained data were introduced into DMFit application, receiving Baranyi and Roberts primary models and also, parameters determining the growth rate of L. monocytogenes. The data, generated in DMFit, were compared with the prognosis from ComBase Predictor (CP) and WaMa Predictor (WMP) programs. When comparing the obtained results with the prognostic models (CP and WMP), the safety margin enabling to use the mentioned applications in microbiological risk assessment was observed.
      KEY WORDS: impedimetric method, pasteurized milk, UHT cream


  • 44 Toward Innovation and Modernity. Visiting the Wiberg GmbH Headquarters – Beata Marchand
  • 46 Polish-American Economic Cooperation
  • 48 Business Information