Contents 10/2013

Przemysł Spożwczy 10/2013


  • 2 Dairy Desserts – Product Innovations – Jarosław Kowalik
    • This paper describes the overall classification of dairy desserts, additives employed and the possible use of different technological advantages to improve the attractiveness to the consumer. The application of raw materials and influence of technological processes on the nutritive value were described. Moreover, the nutritional aspects of dairy desserts with potential functional properties, their importance in human diet were mentioned. There are significant opportunities to develop technology of new dairy desserts, for which demand in Poland and over the world reveals still a rising tendency. KEY WORD: dairy desserts, functional dairy products
  • 8 Sodium Chloride – How to Reduce its Level in Products. The Activities of Manufacturers – Monika Michalak-Majewska, Ewa Jabłońska-Ryś, Marta Zalewska-Korona, Katarzyna Skrzypczak
    • Sodium chloride, i.e. common table salt in the processed foods is the main source of sodium in contemporary diet. The remaining salt is added during cooking at home, whereas natural food products contain only small quantities of sodium. Reduction of sodium chloride concentration in food products is difficult, because salt plays an important role in the food-processing technologies. First of all, salt gives the flavor and prolongs durability, and also, affects the texture of the meat products, ensures proper fermentation and production of dough and participates in the manufacture of cheese. In order to adapt to the current nutritional requirements, food manufacturers undertake attempts to develop food products with reduced content of sodium chloride (breads, meats, sauces, snacks). These actions, combined with adequate consumer education, can be an effective method of lowering sodium consumption and a chance to reduce the cases of disease resulting from its excess in the diet. KEY WORDS:sodium, table salt, low sodium foods
  • 11 Goats Milk – Trick or Gift of the Nature – Katarzyna Kycia, Paula Szymczak
    • In the recent years there has been observed an increasing interest in consumption of goat milk and its use for processing. The high content of nutrients such as complete protein, easily digestible fats, well absorbed calcium, magnesium and vitamins, leads to the growth of its popularity. In many aspects goat milk differs from cow milk. Despite some inconveniences that occur while the goat milk is processed, it is successfully used for production of milk, rennet cheese, quark, fermented milks, milk powder, butter and desserts. Because of the health benefits, goat milk and its products are especially recommended for children, elderly and people suffering from allergies. KEY WORDS: goat milk, goat milk products, processing, health benefits


  • 16 Legibility of Information in Food Products Labelling – Alicja Walkiewicz, Hanna Kunachowicz
    • Good legibility of information provided in the labelling of food products is an important element in increasing the probability that information will be taken into account by consumers when choosing products. Regulation no 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to the consumer for mandatory information specifies font size, defined as the x-height font of at least 1.2 mm. In addition, the Regulation introduces a requirement that voluntary food information shall not be presented with a detriment to the space for mandatory food information. KEY WORDS: legibility, font size, labelling, regulation, consumer


  • 19 The Specificity of Microfiltration – the Process, Membranes and Modules – Bogdan Dec, Władysław Chojnowski
    • Microfiltration is a pressure-driven membrane process used in the dairy industry for the separation of milk components at the molecular level, mainly due to the physical sieving. However, because of the tendency of microfiltration membranes for rapid fouling which reduces process efficiency, the application of microfiltration in milk processing was limited quite a long time. The adverse phenomena occurring during filtration on the membrane surface and in its pores, such as concentration-polarization and fouling, resulting in the deterioration of both the selectivity and efficiency of the filtration process were discussed in the article. KEYWORDS: microfiltration, ceramic membranes, cross-flow filtration, UTP concept, gradient membrane
  • 28 Bionic Senses – the Electronic Nose and Tongue – Bartosz Kruszewski, Mieczysław Obiedziński
    • Certain modern analytical devices are designed on human senses’ example. Scientific discipline called bionics deals with mimic mechanisms of collecting and processing information by man from his environment. Progress in electronics and mechanics contributes to miniaturization and continuous improvement in construction of bionic nose and tongue senses. A wide range of selection of sensors in detection matrices and of signal processing methods determines a tremendous potential of the discussed devices. Artificial senses can be successfully coupled with other analytical techniques. KEY WORDS: electronic tongue, electronic nose, artificial neural networks, food analysis, taste, smell
  • 32 Milk Albumins – Physical and Chemical Properties and Biological Functions – Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
    • Milk proteins determine its nutritional and health-promoting value as well as technological suitability. This paper presents the physicochemical properties and biological functions of major whey proteins, i.e. β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin and serum albumin. Contemporary reports of proven or potential, multi-directional and positive effects of these compounds on the human body impact on raising consumer’s awareness; consequently, the consumption of the dairy products for people who want to take care of their health is increased. However, it should be noted that the content of health-promoting albumins in the dairy products is significantly affected by the degree of milk processing. KEY WORDS: milk, albumins, physical-chemical properties, biological functions
  • 38 Food Safety and Production Hygiene Criteria – Krystyna Kowal
    • The article presents food safety criteria defining the acceptability of the processes of food production and process hygiene criteria indicating the acceptable functioning of the production process. The use of these criteria should form an integral part of the implementation of HACCP-based procedures and other hygiene control measures. KEY WORDS: food, safety criteria, process hygiene criteria
  • 41 Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food – Halina Ścieżyńska, Elżbieta Maćkiw, Łukasz Mąka, Kamila Pawłowska, Magdalena Modzelewska
    • The occurrence of food-borne outbreaks in humans may be associated with a presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in food. Most food-borne infections are caused by mixed food (40%). The highest number of food-borne outbreaks, caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins was recorded in the EU in 2011. The second most frequently single food category reported was bakery products (11.4%). Currently, there are described 21 staphylococcal enterotoxins, marked with letters A – V. KEY WORDS: staphylococcal enterotoxins, food-borne outbreaks, food


  • 44 Business Information