Contents 10/2011

Przemysł Spożywczy 10/2011ECONOMY

  • 2 The Current Problems of Polish Dairy Sector – Piotr Szajner
    • The Polish dairy sector is found in relatively good economic and financial condition. Nevertheless, the sector still faces numerous problems, which require urgent solution. They include, inter alia, the fragmented structure of milk producers and processors, low level of quota utilisation, strong reliability on external factors and a low domestic demand. The acceleration of restructuring processes is considered a crucial factor that would lead to improvement in economic efficiency of the sector which is a basis for comparative advantages in the long run.
      KEY WORDS: dairy sector, milk quotas, efficiency, demand, supply


  • 8 Escherichia coli in Food, Including E. coli O104 – Halina Ścieżyńska, Łukasz Maka, Anna Grochowska, Kamila Pawłowska, Jacek Postupolski
    • Verotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for causing severe disease in humans ranging from hemorrhagic diarrhea to complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Sometimes, it may cause a fatal descent. According to data of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), from among the serotypes belonging to VTEC, E. coli O157 is the most frequently isolated from food. However, it is observed that the disease in humans is also caused by other serotypes such as: O26, O91, O103, O111, O113, O128, O145, and O146. Recently, verotoxigenic E.coli O104 has been the reason for epidemics in Germany.
      KEY WORDS: verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O104, foodstuffs, microbiological contamination, pathogenic microorganisms, RASFF
  • 16 Modified Starch of OSA Type in Food Emulsion Systems – Ewa Świrydow, Ewa Domian
    • Hydrocolloids are widely used as food emulsion stabilisers and emulsifiers. OSA modified starches are surface-active polymers, which may stabilise o/w emulsions effectively. In the article, OSA starches have been described, with its functional properties and the applied mechanisms of emulsion’s stabilisation. The possibility of using starch octenyl succinates in the stabilisation process of mayonnaises, dressings, beverage emulsions as well as in the process of microencapsulation of the food by spray drying have been presented herein.
      KEY WORDS: food emulsion, modified starches (OSA), emulsion stability
  • 22 The Inhibitors in Milk – Dorota Zaręba, Katarzyna Kwietniewska, Małgorzata Ziarno
    • Inhibitors are the native substances, contaminants or adulterants, the aim of which is to inhibit the biochemical processes occurring between milk components or those induced by microorganisms’ activity. The necessity of monitoring these substances results from their direct or indirect influence on the consumer’s health safety. The presence of native inhibitors helps to control the processes’ efficiency, warranting the safety of the final product. The control of the residues’ level after antibiotic therapy, cleaning and disinfection of the milking system or substances, adulterating milk quality, allows evaluating the technological and nutritional quality of milk and dairy products.
      KEY WORDS: milk, inhibitors, enzyme, antibiotics, detergent
  • 32 Enterococci and Their Significance in the Dairy Industry – Dorota Kręgiel, Ewelina Parzęcka
    • The article is a review of the literature concerning the role of enterococci in the dairy industry, mainly in milk and cheeses. Saprophytic strains of Enterococcus may be used in various fermentation processes, however, enterococci are the opportunistic pathogens, and their presence can reduce the health safety of the final product. Therefore, the selection of suitable microbial cultures that may have a beneficial impact on the quality and health safety of food products is very important.
      KEY WORDS: milk, cheeses, enterococci
  • 38 Biogenic Amines in Ripening Cheeses – Arnold Reps, Krystyna Wiśniewska, Aleksandra Grześkiewicz, Agnieszka Jankowska
    • Some of the microorganisms present in cheese are capable of forming biogenic amines of free amino acids generated in the process of cheese ripening. The content of biogenic amines in long-ripened hard cheese is higher than their proportion in the semi-hard and soft cheeses. In the same type of cheese, produced by different manufacturers, the content of biogenic amines can vary. The high content of biogenic amines in cheese may negatively affect the health of the consumer.
      KEY WORDS: cheese, free amino acids, biogenic amines


  • 45 Chances for Locally Produced Specialties in Global Distribution – Anna Zaborowska, Krzysztof Skierkowski
    • Food production with the application of regional and traditional technology is increasingly popular in the European Union countries. It is perceived as an opportunity for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, what, in turn, contributes to the prosperity of small towns and villages. Consumers exhibit a growing interest in this type of food. They are willing to pay a higher price for it, expecting in return that they will receive the products, being safe and with good quality. Growing interest among the consumers increases the number of companies willing to enter the market of traditional and regional foods. Unfortunately, it often happens that those who engage in this type of project are not adequately prepared for that. Sometimes they lack the knowledge of the properties of food products and the changes that occur during their storage. But much more often, they do not realize how important role in a potential success is played by properly used marketing tools.
      KEY WORDS: traditional specialties, food safety, brand, price
  • 48 Microbiological Contamination of Food in Consumers’ Opinion – Elżbieta Hać-Szymańczuk, Edyta Lipińska, Katarzyna Nowacka
    • On the grounds of poll survey, the level of the knowledge of consumers, about microbiological food indigestion was evaluated. There were 250 people, among whom there were the young and the adult persons. The survey showed the low lever of knowledge about germs and possibility of their occurrence in food. However, people have good habits in respect of preparing and consuming the meals. The consumers are often not aware of the possibility of microbiological food contamination, so that they are endangered with the secondary food contamination through improperly food processing. In consequence, it causes food poisoning.
      KEY WORDS: microbiological contamination, consumers’ preference, microorganisms
  • 51 Effect of the Microwave Drying Parameters on the Contents of Polyphenols in the Selected Herbs – Małgorzata Nowacka, Karina Łuczywek, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert
    • Herbs are commonly used to improve taste of prepared food. Herbs contain essential oils, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, phytoncides, organic acids, vitamins, minerals and phenolic compounds, which are natural antioxidants. Lack of these compounds in the human diet leads to disturbances in the body function. These studies indicate that the application of appropriately selected parameters of microwave-convective drying leads to a high content of polyphenols in dried products, and the amount of losses of these compounds during drying depends mainly on the type of the raw material.
      KEY WORDS: basil, oregano, microwave-convective drying, polyphenols
  • 54 Nutrition and Health Claims on Packages of Selected Groups of Groceries – Monika Mieczkowska, Helena Panfil-Kuncewicz
    • Food packages are one of the most important tools of market communication between the customer and the producer. While taking into account the customers’ interest in healthy nourishing, the producers try to evoke positive association with a given product by placing on the labels the information about specific and pro-health features. This is sometimes implemented by the use of so called nutrition and health claims. The article presented both the assessment of frequency and the estimation of accordance with the legal regulations of the above mentioned information on the selected groups of groceries. The results of the conducted research indicated that a majority of producers decide to use the nutrition and health claims. Additionally, it has noted that there is still a big number of packages whose claims are not in accordance with the legal requirements.
      KEY WORDS: packaging, nutrition and health claims, labeling


  • 60 Poland – Union – World